Sunday, March 8, 2020

Westnile Disease essays

Westnile Disease essays About the Virus, the Disease, and Its Spread West Nile virus is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito, and can infect people, horses, many types of birds, and some other animals. Most people who become infected with West Nile virus will have either no symptoms or only mild ones. However, on rare occasions, West Nile virus infection can result in severe and sometimes fatal illnesses. There is no evidence to suggest that West Nile virus can be spread from person to person or from animal to person. Overview of West Nile Virus Updated Q: What are West Nile virus, West Nile fever, and West Nile encephalitis? A.West Nile Virus is a flavivirus commonly found in Africa, West Asia, and the Middle East. It is closely related to St. Louis encephalitis virus found in the United States. The virus can infect humans, birds, mosquitoes, horses and some other mammals. West Nile fever is a case of mild disease in people, characterized by flu-like symptoms. West Nile fever typically lasts only a few days and does not appear to cause any long-term health effects. More severe disease due to a person being infected with this virus can be West Nile encephalitis, West Nile meningitis or West Nile meningoencephalitis. Encephalitis refers to an inflammation of the brain, meningitis is an inflammation of the membrane around the brain and the spinal cord, and meningoencephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain and the membrane surrounding it. Q. Where did West Nile virus come from? A. West Nile virus has been commonly found in humans and birds and other vertebrates in Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, but until 1999 had not previously been documented in the Western Hemisphere. It is not known from where the U.S. virus originated, but it is most closely related genetically to strains found in the Middle East. Q. Historically, where has West Nile encephalit...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Homosexuality in Vietnam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Homosexuality in Vietnam - Essay Example Gay marriage was banned in Vietnam in 1998 by the country’s national assembly. This ban was placed right after two lesbian marriages had taken place even though the local officials had tried their level best to stop them. The marriages not only happened, but were also publicised. The national assembly thought it better to stop gay marriages there and then before other LGBTs got the nerve to follow example. Gays were openly discriminated and there was no law that could stop that. There has now come a change in the country regarding LGBTs. The views are changing and the government is taking steps to protect the LGBT persons. LGBT people in Vietnam are treated separately from the non-LGBT. While those having a straight orientation have no problems whatsoever, same-sex sexual activity is not what one can say legal and same-sex couples are not given the same protection from law as the non-LGBT persons. The Vietnamese culture is such where homosexuality is a taboo. However, with time the things are changing in Vietnam and now LGBT rights have started being recognized, all thanks to the LGBT community and some civil rights unions that have worked together to bring about this to happen. Awareness groups are trying their best to protect such people. In fact, the government is trying to make same-sex marriages legal. In 2012 the minister of Vietnam, Ha Hung Cuong, revealed that the government is contemplating on whether same-sex marriages should become lawful or not. He pointed out, and rightly, that the LGBT should also be given protection and therefore, in order to protect their individual freedoms the government should allow them to marry a person of their own gender. The Ministry of Justice submitted a bill for revoking the ban placed against same-sex marriage in the Marriage and Family Law in 2013. By October the National Assembly was supposed to debate over it. In November it was decided that Vietnam would legalize gay weddings, but not gay marriages (Morgan). By this it means that same-sex couples can organize weddings and can live together as a couple, but these weddings will not be officially considered a legal marriage. Still, the gay rights campaigners do consider it something that they have accomplished and believe that it is this way. only by taking small steps that they can one day live in a society where gay marriages are legal and allowed, and LGBT persons are not persecuted or stereotyped. â€Å"Vietnam is advancing rights for same-sex couples, but still needs to take the final step to guarantee marriage equality for all,† said Brad Adams (Human Rights Watch). One of the reasons for the government interfering in this matter an d allowing gay weddings is because a gay and lesbian couple had been previously fined for organizing their marriage. Since the Law on Marriage & Family did not allow marriage between same sex people, these two couples had to pay a penalty because they contradicted the habits and customs of Vietnam. Therefore, the government had no choice but to allow the organisation of such weddings in order to provide somewhat protection to the LGBTs – whether straight or gay, the people are the responsibility of the country. They have lifted the ban on same-sex weddings but these marriages aren’

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Statistics on the Incidence of AIDS in the US Research Paper - 1

Statistics on the Incidence of AIDS in the US - Research Paper Example In 2007, it has been reported that HIV was the third leading cause of mortality for black men and women aged 35-44. HIV also became the ninth leading cause of mortality for all blacks. In fact, about 233,624 Blacks who were diagnosed with AIDS had died in the United States. Moreover, African American women were known to be 22 times more likely to die from HIV/AIDS compared to women from other ethnicities. In 2008, African Americans had the highest rate of death from AIDS, which amounted to 27.5 per 100,000 population. According to Maryland Statistics, Black females incurred higher rates of AIDS mortality compared to women from other races. Table 1 below also supports these statistics. The peak of mortality observed from all races was seen in 1995. Â   In 1995, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced to the public. Before 1995, the use of protease inhibitors in the United States was not allowed. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved the drugs in December of 1995 and on March of 1996. HAART is associated with decreased mortality and morbidity of patients with HIV/AIDS. Although it is not a cure, it is used for the purpose of improving a patient’s symptoms or even their quality of life. As a result, the patient’s survival rate is also prolonged. HAART is just one of the other lifesaving innovations that have been discovered. Thus, after the year 1995, the mortality rate started to decline slowly. The decline is quite evident and steady on White females. However, with regards to Black females, the mortality rate decreased post-HAART but would increase again after 1998. Afterwards, the rate intermittently increased and decreased. The trends in the mortality rates of Black women with AIDS as compared with White patients is truly intriguing. The disparity is profound. Certain factors can be attributed with such disparities in mortality and morbidity rates observed between ethnicities of women - most especially Blacks and Whites - with HIV/AIDS. It is relevant to identify such factors in order to come up with solutions that could help ease this disparity.

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Monday, January 20, 2020

Film Review of The Crucible :: Essay on The Crucible

Film Review of The Crucible The Crucible: A Film Review Who'd have thought that simple dancing could cause so much chaos in a small town. This is precisely what happens in the film The Crucible (Nicholas Hytner, 1996), which was originally written as a play by Arthur Miller. This story is based on actual events, which helps in showing the accuracy of the events. The story takes place in Salem in 1692, during the Salem witch trials. The story starts when a group of young girls, particularly one named Abigail, are caught dancing around a fire in the woods by the town preacher, Samuel Parris. In an effort to avoid getting in trouble, the girls begin to make accusations against the townspeople, saying that these people are witches who forced them to dance. As the hysteria grows in Salem, people begin to question their own neighbors, simply out of spite and vengeance, among other things. The Crucible is certainly historically accurate in it's portrayal of the townspeople's beliefs and attitudes. It is a film that should be seen to view the way people were in the seventeenth century. Fear was probably the biggest reason for all of the happenings. Fear is what got the girls started on their accusations, as they were afraid to get in trouble. They knew that if they were thought to be conjuring spirits, they would be hung. The townspeople were also afraid, especially of those who were different. They felt that they must be rid of anyone who disagreed with their beliefs. Just look at how the Puritans treated the Indians. They feared the Native Americans because their beliefs were different than their own. Also, the main reason that people were accused in the first place, is because when Tituba was being questioned, they were asking if she saw Sara Good and Sara Osborne with the Devil. Of course she said yes, they were threatening to kill her. Another example of fear in the village, is the fear of accepting your own actions and taking responsibility. The Puritans believed in predestination, and if the girls were dancing just to dance, and not because the Devil took them from their path to God, the townspeople would then have to take the responsibility for that, as it would be thier fault for letting these girls go astray. They were also afraid of change. Change in their beliefs would shut down the entire town, because it was built mainly on their ideology.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Love and Respect By Dr. Emerson Eggerichs

Have you ever looked for your lost keys in the same place over and over again only to find out they were there in front of your face the whole time? Or have you ever looked everywhere for the pen or pencil that you had all day only to find it behind your ear at the end of the day? This is how I felt when I read Love and Respect by Dr. Emerson Eggerichs. The running theme of this book is many marriages are strained due to the fact that â€Å"men are from Mars and women are from Venus.† What I am saying here is that a simple misunderstanding causes the strain. Men don’t grasp what women are feeling when they are trying to express themselves and, yes, it’s true women are in the same predicament concerning men. Husbands aren’t feeling respected by their wives when, in turn, wives aren’t feeling loved by their husbands. Eggerin states there are three major cycles to the process of Love and Respect. The first cycle is named the crazy cycle. So named because the husband and wife end up with the same negative results for the same reason over and over again and the cycle continues until the couple decides to break the cycle. The second cycle is coined the energizing cycle. The couple has now overcome the vicious crazy cycle and can work toward encouraging one another with the love and respect each spouse deserves. Finally, the third cycle is known as the rewarded cycle. This cycle emphasizes the fact that no matter the response of the spouse, your reward is in heaven. I will elaborate on these three cycles and the foundation for the need for love and respect in a marriage. Let me elaborate on how Eggerin came to the epiphany of the need for love and respect in a healthy marriage. First, if we look at the success of the twelve step programs ranging from co-dependency to food disorders to chemical addictions, we can come to one conclusion as to their success. They work because they are based on one person with the same problem helping another. Oddly, Dr. Eggerich had the advantage, for lack of a better word, of watching his parents’ marriage disintegrate because of the lack of respect and love in it. Interestingly, Eggerich shares his difficulties in his marriage and the difficulty he had with marriage counseling from the start as well. He may have his PhD but his success concerning marriage counseling is due largely to the fact that he and his wife had the same struggles many couples experience. There was a lot of stumbling through cycles of misunderstandings between Emerson and his wife, Sarah. He forgot her birthday one year. After a Bible study group one night, Sarah’s voice grew louder and louder on the way home trying to get through to Emerson concerning his standoffish quiet demeanor. Emerson felt disrespected and hurt and he said to her; â€Å"You can be right but wrong at the top of your voice. (p.11)† One day, for the thousandth time, he read Ephesians 5:33; â€Å"33 Nevertheless tlet each one of you in particular so love his own wife as himself, and let the wife see that she urespects her husband.†[1] That’s when it hit him. It was right in front of his face every time he read it but this time, it truly resonated.   He had never seen the connection between love and respect but this time, he did. He came to the realization that a husband is to obey the command to love his wife, even if the wife does not obey the command to respect the husband. Also, the wife is to respect her husband even if the husband does not obey the command to love his wife. So, the connection is love and respect. There are two reasons why love and respect are primary needs. He discusses his personal experience of coming to this understanding from a husbands’ point of view. When disagreements occur, the husband perceives that the wife is contemptuous or disrespectful toward him. This, in turn, causes the husband to shut down or blow up at her and the wife does not receive an expression of love (p.17). After years of counseling married couples, I think it is safe to hang your hat on Eggerins’ theory. The crazy cycle is a down to earth approach to a problem that started at the fall of man. If not broken, this cycle will tear a marriage to pieces. Often, the man is not even aware that it actually is disrespect that the wife is conveying toward him. On the other hand, the wife doesn’t understand why her husband is not expressing his love toward her. The steps toward breaking the crazy cycle are just as simple as the realization that it exists. One major component is communication. Learning how to express our feelings in a respectful tone is very important. The communication code is discussed. He uses a funny little example of how men and women communicate in code. When a wife says; â€Å"I have nothing to wear,† she actually means â€Å"I have nothing new.† When a man says, â€Å"I have nothing to wear,† he means â€Å"I have nothing clean.† This is an example of the code that needs to be broken in order for couples to move past the crazy cycle. I believe another important thing to mention concerning the crazy cycle is unconditional respect. It is vital for women and men to see that respect is not earned, but given. Eggerson uses an example of a boss in the workplace. He basically says that even if you don’t feel respect for your boss, you still show respect for him or her. This is an example of unconditional respect. I suppose we can look at it this way as well, we are to give respect, expecting nothing in return. Just the same, we are to give love expecting nothing in return and both love and respect are reciprocal. They feed off of each other. The second cycle that Eggerson discusses is the energizing cycle.   This is the cycle in which application is necessary in order to stay off of the crazy cycle and move forward. There are two separate sections devoted to husbands and wives respectively. Each section contains an acronym; 1) Couple and 2) Chairs for the wives. The acronym for couple is Closeness, Openness, Understanding, Peacemaking, Loyalty and Esteem. To elaborate, a wife wants her husband to be close and there is a biblical standard for this as well. Genesis 2:24 says, â€Å"the husband shall cleave unto his wife; and they shall be one flesh.† She also wants her man to open up to her or to tell her what’s happening inside of him and not shut her down when she asks if something is wrong. Sometimes a wife just wants her husband to listen and not to try and fix her problems for her. This is where understanding comes into play. She desires to be at peace and she wants to hear her husband say that he’s sorry some times. Take initiative and pray with her after apologizing. She also needs to know that you aren’t going anywhere and that you are committed to her. Loyalty is very important in a marriage. If her friends are upset with her, be there. Even if she is wrong, a husband can still be loyal to his wife by being there for her in her time of need. She wants you esteem her as well. Read the Song of Solomon and pay special attention to the esteem and love that the man bestows on the Shulamite. For the women, the acronym for chairs is Conquest, Hierarchy, Authority, Insight, Relationship, and Sexuality. Respecting a husband is appreciating his desire to work and to achieve. This is not referring to the archaic definition. It merely refers to encouraging a husband in his achievements at work and in life and with the family. The hierarchy is to appreciate his desire to protect and provide. Eggerichs says that we need to keep in mind this is not a chauvinists’ construct but it is one thing that gives a man purpose. I kind of look at it in the way Christ defines hierarchy and that is that the least will be greatest in the kingdom of heaven. Men desire to be in authority and there are times that it is okay for a wife to appreciate that. Also, appreciate the wisdom and insight your husband has and his desire to analyze and counsel. Next comes relationship. I know that it’s hard to understand that sometimes husbands just want you in the same room with them, but it’s true. They don’t always want to talk about something. Sometimes, they just want their wives with them. Finally, the taboo of Christianity, sexuality! Appreciating his desire for sexual intimacy is also very important. Nothing seems to break a man down more than to remove physical intimacy from a relationship. Finally, the third cycle is fairly straightforward. It is a biblical concept through and through. There is no doubt as to whether or not Jesus practiced this concept in His life on this earth. The cycle is called the rewarded cycle. Notice it says rewarded. This is referring to the fact that it is done. No matter the husband or wife’s response, the reward for the obedient servant is eternal. It is stored in heaven. If a husband pours his love and gives all that he has for his wife, his reward is in heaven. There is no response necessary in order for the husband to be rewarded. If his wife is completely disrespectful then he will still receive his reward and vice-versa for a wife. This book has opened my eyes to a whole new reality concerning those who carry the opposite sex and myself. In the long run, there is no reason to give up on a marriage that is not working because of miscommunication and confusion. If we practice humility and recognize the need for biblical truth in married life then anything is possible. t Col. 3:19 u 1 Pet. 3:1, 6 [1]The New King James Version. 1996, c1982 . Thomas Nelson: Nashville

Friday, January 3, 2020

Christian Counseling Ethics - 1839 Words

Summarize the five ethical guidelines for integrating spirituality into counseling. Discuss the ethical concerns that each guideline is attempting to address. According to Craig Cashwell and J. Young (2011) one of the five ethical guidelines are (1) Religion and spirituality are widely practiced in the United States - â€Å"researchers have found that 96% of people leaving in the United States believe in a higher power, more than 90% pray, 69% are members of a religious community† (p. 13). Furthermore, on 7.5% of the United States population identify themselves as non-religious. However, many people engage in a form of spiritual practice that may not include a higher power or does not involve participation in an organized religion. In†¦show more content†¦Spiritual and religious viewpoints are strong personal beliefs, and they are central to a client’s understanding of his/her place in the world. Without fully understanding a client’s religious it is impossible to understand the personal struggles of a client. Failing to do this result in incompetent and unethical practice. For example, A client thinks th at he/she is condemned to hell for past behaviors and that God does not answer his/her prayers and the counselors fails to assess religious/spiritual beliefs (Cashwell Young, 2011). Furthermore, client welfare is an concern that this guideline is addressing. According to the American Counseling Association ethical codes it is the counselors’ primary responsibility to promote the welfare of clients. Counselors should also take reasonable steps to do the client no harm. Also, the therapeutic relationship most important in this guideline. It is of much significance that the counselor discuss appropriate issues with the client. Discuss the competencies behind counselor self-awareness, in terms of the importance of knowing yourself, your client, and your limitations. 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